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S2092 Gastric Determinants of Maximum Satiety Induced By Standardized Solid and Liquid Meal. An MRI Study in Non Obese Healthy Subjects

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卷:
136
语言:
english
日志:
Gastroenterology
DOI:
10.1016/S0016-5085(09)61507-9
Date:
May, 2009
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PDF, 47 KB
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synthesized aFGF fragments aFGF - (1-15), [D-Trp6] - aFGF - (1-15), [desaminoPhe1.D Trp6] - aFGF - (1-15), [desaminoPhe1.Lys (ε-myristyl)16] - aFGF - (1-16), [Lys (ε - myristyl)16] - aFGF- (1-16), [D-Trp6.Lys (ε-myristyl)16] - aFGF - (1-16) and [Ala16] aFGF (1-29) were injected into the third ventricle of rats in the period from 18:30 to 19:00.
Powdered food in the animal food boxes were weighed at 19:00, 22:00, and 7:00 for
calculating food consumption by rats in 3 hours and 12 hours. Then the two active aFGF
fragments aFGF - (1-15) and [Ala16] aFGF - (1-29) were injected into the subcutaneous
tissue of rats in the period from 18:30 to 19:00, to calculate nocturnal food consumption
RESULTS: For intracerebroventricular infusion, aFGF-(1-15) (200ng/rat) had no effect on
the feeding, while aFGF-(1-15) (400ng/rat) suppressed the food intake (P <0.05). As for
[Ala16] aFGF-(1-29), not only 200ng/rat but also 400ng/rat (P <0.05) suppressed the food
intake. Other five aFGF fragments had no effect on the feeding in the dose of 200ng/rat
and 400ng/rat (P >0.05). For hypodermic injection, [Ala16] aFGF - (1-29) (300ug/kg)
suppressed the food intake (P <0.05), while others had no effect (P >0.05) CONCLUSIONS:
These findings suggest the amino-terminal portion of aFGF is active in food intake suppression. The replacement of cysteine residue by alanine is important in some amino-terminal
aFGF fragments. Other aFGF fragments, in which glycine at position 6 was replaced with
D-tryptophane, phenylalanine at position 1 with desaminoPhe, and cysteine at position 16
with Lys (ε-myristyl) had no effect on nocturnal feeding in rats. Peripheral administration
of one fragment was also effective on nocturnal feeding in rats.

Dietary Free Glutamate Augments Portal Increase of Free Amino Acids After
Intragastric Protein Load in Rats
Tatsuro Tanaka, Hisayuki Uneyama, Kunio Torii
Background: Dietary free glutamate promotes gastric emptying of protein-rich diet in healthy
humans (Biol Pharm Bull.10:1841-3, 2008). However ; it is not known whether it could
affect the process of digestion and/or absorption of dietary protein as a result of faster gastric
emptying. Aim: In this study we examined the effects of glutamate on amino acids (AAs)
increase both in portal and peripheral blood and on gastric emptying rate after intragastric
protein-rich meal load in rats. Methods: Male SD rats (20 weeks) were fitted with portal
vein cannula under nembutal anesthesia. Ten days later, blood samples were taken from a
lateral tail vein and the portal vein of awake rats at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after
protein-rich liquid diet load (10 ml/kg p.o., energy density: 1.0 kcal/ml) containing 12.5%
casein-calcium and 12.5% dextrin. Plasma AAs were analyzed by AA analyzer (L-8800,
Hitachi-high tech, Japan). Monosodium L-glutamate (0.5% w/v, normal habitual concentration for human) was used as an active ingredient and equimolar NaCl (0.18% w/v) was
used as a control. To measure gastric emptying rate, 13CO2 excretion was measured by an
open-circuit metabolic gas analysis system equipped with a mass spectrometer (Model RL600, ArcoSystem, Japan) after p.o. load of the same meal labeled by 13C-sodium acetate
(100 mg/kg). Results: Intragastric load of the diet rapidly increased plasma glucose and all
20 AAs both in portal as well as peripheral vein with their peaks at 15 or 30 min. Free
glutamate enrichment augmented the increase in portal plasma AUC (during 2hr) of AAs,
but not in portal glucose. Significant augmentation was observed in both essential and nonessential AAs (mg/dl.hr, ** P<0.01, * P<0.05); alanine** (8.0±1.8 vs 4.3±1.2), leucine**
(4.1±1.0 vs 2.4±0.5), glutamate**(1.9±0.7 vs 0.7±0.5), lysine*(7.5±2.4 vs 4.7±1.7),
serine*(2.8±0.8 vs 1.8±0.7), arginine*(2.5±0.6 vs 1.8±0.4), lsoleucine*(2.2±0.2 vs 1.5±0.2),
phenylalanine*(1.7±0.5 vs 1.0±0.3), histidine* (1.5±0.4 vs 1.0±0.4), methionine*(1.3±0.4
vs 0.8±0.3) . On the other hand, free glutamate enrichment did not change significantly
either peripheral plasma AUC of glucose and AAs or gastric emptying rate of the meal (T
1/2, 1.07±0.03 vs 1.03±0.06 hr, P=0.10). Conclusions: Free glutamate significantly enhanced
the portal increase in 10 out of 20 natural AAs composing proteins without affecting portal
glucose increase or gastric emptying rate after the meal in rats, indicating that it facilitates
the process of protein digestion and/or absorption rather than gastric motility. Differences
of its effect on gastric emptying rate between species and its sites of action remain to
be elucidated.

S2094
Role of Upper Gastrointestinal Motility Stimulation in the Occurrence of
Hunger Peaks
Emidio Scarpellini, Rita Vos, Heleen Nicolai, Daphne Ang, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Inge
Depoortere, Jan F. Tack
Background: Recently, we reported that hunger ratings in the fasting state in man were
closely correlated with gastric motor activity, and that hunger peaks coincided with gastric
phase 3 of the migrating motor complex (MMC) (Ang et al., DDW 2008). It is unclear
whether intense stimulation of gastric motility is sufficient to induce a sensation of hunger,
or whether this requires the highly organised pattern of gastric phase 3. Aim: To further
elucidate the relationship between motor activity and hunger ratings by comparing the
influence of the cholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine and the motilin agonist erythromycin
on upper gastrointestinal motor activity and hunger ratings in man. Materials and methods:
Twenty five fasted healthy subjects (11 males; 32.6±2.0 years) underwent antroduodenojejunal manometry. Twenty minutes after a full MMC cycle, neostigmine (NEO) 0.5mg (n=13)
or erythromycin (EM) 40mg (n=12) were administered i.v. Phases of the MMC were visually
identified. Computer-aided baseline reconstruction was used to quantify phasic contractions
as a motility index (MI), reflecting the area between signal and baseline normalized over
time. Hunger scores (on 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS)) were measured throughout
the study. Comparisons were made between 20 minutes before and 60 minutes after start
of drug administration. Results: Prior to drug administration, a significant correlation was
found between antral MI and hunger scores (r=0.6021, p<0.001), and gastric phase 3 was
associated with a hunger peak compared to phase 2 scores (35.9±5.4 vs. 62.5±7.5, p<0.005).
Administration of NEO was associated with a significant increase in antral MI (0.32±0.09
to 3.25±0.62, p< 0.0001), which resulted in a typical phase 3 pattern in only 1 subject.
Hunger scores were not significantly affected by neostigmine (46.8±6.7 vs. 47.2±7.2, NS)
and no significant correlation was found between antral MI and hunger scores after NEO
(r=0.03, NS). Administration of EM was followed by a gastric phase 3 in all subjects after
17±2 min, with a significant increase in antral MI (1.22±0.18 to 3.49±0.35, p<0.0004), and
this was associated with peak hunger scores (29.2±7.0 vs. 61.7±8.0, p=0.02). A significant
correlation was found between antral MI and hunger scores after EM (r=0.24, p<0.05).
Conclusions: Phasic gastric contractions, as induced by a cholinesterase inhibitor, do not
induce a hunger signal. Peak hunger seems to require the induction of a typical gastric
phase 3 pattern.

S2092
Gastric Determinants of Maximum Satiety Induced By Standardized Solid and
Liquid Meal. An MRI Study in Non Obese Healthy Subjects
Maria Flavia Savarese, Giovanni Sarnelli, Emanuele Nicolai, Giovanna Vollono, Eleonora
Efficie, Rosario Cuomo
BACKGROUND: Gastric contribution to satiety has been mostly investigated by invasive
methods and by the administration of liquid meals. Nonetheless, these conditions may alter
the physiology of the stomach and do not reflect individual's alimentary habit, respectively.
AIM: To study gastric determinant to satiety in a more physiological fashion by a non
invasive method as MRI and by standardized solid (SM) and liquid (LM) meal. SUBJECTS
AND METHODS: Ten healthy subjects (4 F; Age 22±3; BMI 23±1) underwent satiety tests
by SM and LM on two separate occasions. Subjects were requested to maintain intake at
regular rate (100 kcal/5 min). At five minute intervals, they scored their satiety using a
graphic rating scale that combined verbal descriptors on a scale graded 0-5 (1=threshold,
5=maximum satiety). Kcal and time to reach maximum satiety (MS) were calculated. During
the meal tests, a gastric 1.5 T MRI using a multi-receive parallel body-synergy-coil was
performed. Three acquisitions were then recorded at baseline, maximum satiety and 120
min postprandially, in order to calculate total, proximal and distal gastric volumes at each
time point. Also, residual volumes at 120 min were calculated and expressed as percentage
respect to MS. Data are expressed as mean±SD. RESULTS: Kcals ingested and time to reach
MS were significantly higher during SM (783±244 kcal; 44±14 min) than LM (630±353
p<0.01; 31±17 p<0.01). However, total, proximal and distal gastric volume were not different
between the two meals (SM: 657±186, 110±40, 546±173 vs LM: 651±299, 143±64,
507±283). Correlation analysis between total and distal gastric volumes and kcal at MS
revealed a more strong and significant correlation during LM (r=0.98, p<0.001; r=0.95,
p<0.001) compared to SM (r=0.76, p<0.01; r=0.78, p<0.01). No correlations were found
between proximal volumes and kcal at MS. Percentages of gastric retention at 120 min were
significantly higher with SM than with LM in the distal stomach, but not in the proximal
stomach (63±13 vs 38±14, p<0.01 and 14±5 vs 10±7 p=NS). In addition, a significant
correlation between the percentage of gastric retention at 120min and MS was only observed
by considering total and distal stomach with LM (r=0.73 and r=0.61, p<0.01, respectively).
CONCLUSION: By using a non-invasive methodology we showed that a standardized SM
is a reliable tool to assess maximum satiety in healthy subjects. The lack of correlation
between proximal gastric volumes and Kcals ingested at maximum satiety is probably related
to the different intragastric distribution and handling of the liquid and solid meals.

S2095
Dietary Advice for IBS - Is Everyone Singing from the Same Recipe Sheet?
Asma Fikree, Jocelyn L. Aldridge, Malin Roesner, Kalpesh Besherdas
Intro:The aetiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is incompletely understood.Diet may
be a factor that triggers or exacerbates symptoms of IBS and needs to be considered in the
management of this disorder.Information about diet is usually obtained from doctors,dieticians or the internet.It is difficult to give general dietary advice to people with IBS as patients
are very heterogeneous and there is no clear evidence for most dietary modifications. However,
in 2008 the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) issued guidelines
on management of IBS and this included specific advice on diet. Aim: To compare the
dietary advice given by doctors and the internet,and find out whether they were concordant
with each other,and with NICE guidelines. Methods:Multicentre survey over 4 sites- 2
teaching hospitals and 2 district general hospitals.Information on internet advice for IBS
was obtained by typing in “IBS and diet” on Google and using the first 10 websites which
appeared.Promotional websites were excluded.Consultant and trainee gastroenterologists
were asked what dietary advice they would give in clinic to a patient with IBS. Results:18
doctors - 10 consultants and 8 trainees. Detailed dietary advice was given by 90% of websites
and 22% of doctors.17% of doctors advise an exclusion diet, 17% refer to a dietician and
6% use diet sheets.Food diaries were advised by 100% of websites and 11% of doctors.Specific
dietary triggers are listed in table 1. Conclusions: Doctors give very minimal, vague and
hugely variable dietary advice for IBS.A dietician review or diet sheet is not always provided.This could lead to patients obtaining information from the internet.This,in comparison
provides very detailed dietary advice some of which is more concordant with guidelines
than are doctors,but does not allow for patient individuality.This could potentially result in
patients adopting very rigid and suboptimal diets. A more standardised approach to dietary
modification could be obtained by handing out diet sheets based on accepted guidelines,
or by referral to established websites. Reference: Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults Primary
Care: Diagnosis and Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Primary Care. NICE
guidelines, Feb 2008.

S2093
Effects of Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fragments On Nocturnal Feeding
in Rats By Intracerebroventricular and Hypodermic Injection
Xueliang Li, Yanjun Zhao, Lin Lin
OBJECTIVEs: aFGF significantly suppressed the food intake, but the active region of aFGF
that is responsible for food intake is unclear. In our study, seven aFGF fragments were
infused into the third ventricle of rats to investigate the active region of aFGF that is
responsible for food intake by calculating nocturnal food consumption. Then the effectiveness
of peripheral administration of the active fragments is also examined. METHODS: For
intracerebroventricular infusion, a guide cannula made of stainless steel tubing was fixed
into the third cerebral ventricle one week before the experiments. Under no anesthesia seven

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AGA Abstracts

AGA Abstracts

S2091